PDP

My first constellation session was with Dr Martin Woodward, on New materialism. Being unfamiliar with the subject Philosophy, I was apprehensive but also curious to start. In my first session we discussed ‘The meaning of the social and cultural body’. I learnt how the social body is understood though the experiences of day-to-day living, for example, being with your family and friends, going to school, learning about different cultures and rules, therefore the body naturally changes and adapts to society. This is used within my practice everyday when I’m learning new techniques, researching different designers and working with other students. The social body is also used In my practice through the way I think, create and sketch. Whilst some students have done foundation courses and studied Graphic Design before coming to university, I have come from doing Art and Design as an A level, therefore my way of working and thinking might be different to others.

Another session we had that really inspired me was ‘How materials and tools hide from view’. I learnt that tools are moulded in practice, for example if you were playing an instrument it becomes a part of you. The way you play the instrument or hear it is an inseparable part to the act. Most importantly I have learnt that the boundary between the hand and tool vanishes whilst you are using it, an extract from Pallasmaa’s ‘The Working Hand’ explains that, a painter paints by the means of the mind rather than the brush as a physical object. Through out the session, my knowledge and understanding of how the object becomes a part of our body, shaping our creative practice. Drawn lines aren’t only recognised by my memories and experiences, but they also express the memory and expectancy of the materials in use.

This knowledge is essential to me as a learner as I am developing my practice and creative skills. It widens my ability and practice so that I naturally experiment with different ways to create and write. I am not yet confident about how to connect the working hand within my practices. I will need to gain a better understanding of the language of materials, to be able to fully realise how my experiences are expressed and relate to my practice. As a next step, I need to research the works of different artist who specialise in how experiences unconsciously shapes our movement, gestures and practices, for example Paul Klee who said that “Art does not render the visible; but renders visible“.

At the end of these sessions we then had to write an essay , using the information we had acquired over the previous weeks. I decided to discuss ‘Body modification’, and what drives people to do it. I split my essay into four parts and gave myself questions to answer for each section. Even though writing the essay was a challenge I found it to be rather interesting, learing and educating myself about the different subjects in more detail.

My second constellation sessions were with Dr Jonathan Clarkson, ‘After Modernism’. In the first session we discussed a variety of artists, their work and the meaning behind the images and techniques. The first image was of Jackson Pollock’s work, a portrait of V.I, Lenin in a cap, 1980. We were asked what we could see in the image and at first is wasn’t very clear. We were then shown another image of the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Llyich Lenin and instantly you could see his face being unravelled from the Pollock painting. The Pollock painting definitely breaks all conventions and rules of the traditional painting. The Pollock painting has the freedom of expression in his paintings compared the Petrov painting which is rather traditional and obeying  the rules of society.

When you put both images together you see that both are forms of propaganda for different countries. The paintings were created in this way so that the difference between American propaganda (Pollock’s painting) and the Russian propaganda (Petrov) was visually obvious.This then links in with Abstract Expressionism where  painters have to show the countries claim to cultural leadership. The artwork is also used as weapon of war, for example spy agencies used artists such as Pollock in the Cold War.

In the following sessions we had brief discussions on Cubism, Minimalism and Surrealism, however I didn’t feel as if I learnt enough about the different movements and their styles, and therefore didn’y enjoy it as much as the first session. What I did enjoy learning about was Fuluxus art. This was something new I hadn’t heard of previously, and was something usually created by musicians, poets and other individuals who didn’t agree with conventional art. It can be created in many different ways, for example, short films with moving images with a distorted and annoying sound effects.

For my constellation essay I have decided to modify “How did the notion of what painting is change during the sixties?”. Instead of discussing how painting changed I am going to discuss how Graphic Design and typography changed in that era. I have started to collect research into what type of things I could discuss within the text. I am also going to use my notes from the ‘Purple Haze –  Channelling Art Nouveau within 60’s Psychedelia’ Keynote session.

Constellation has not only been useful, but it’s inspired me to consider other subjects outside my course. It has helped me within my practice to think about the way I create and to widen my research topics. The sessions have definitely inspired me to think ‘outside the box’ when starting on projects and how my piece of work affects others. I will definitely be applying this to my work in the future. I will explore the many ways of creating and experimenting with different objects/ technology. I find I am now thinking in a different way about my work to before and will definately trying to express my individuality whenever possible.

After Modernism

Freedom of expression

Today was my first lecture on After Modernism where we discussed a variety of artists, their work and the meaning behind the images and techniques. The first image was of Jackson Pollock’s work, a portrait of V.I, Lenin in a cap, 1980. We were asked what we could see in the image and at first is wasn’t very clear. We were then shown another image of the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Llyich Lenin and instantly you could see his face being unravelled from the Pollock painting.

We then moved on to discussing the politics behind the Petrov, ‘The first Woman Uzbek tractor Driver’, 1955. It is a picture of two working women and it is obvious that the image is empowering the females. However when you look deeper into the image you understand that it could also be a form of Russian propaganda. The land that the women are working on belongs to the state and therefore the women aren’t as free as they seem in the painting. We then compared this image to another Pollock painting, ‘Autumn Rhythm’ 1950. The Pollock painting definitely breaks all conventions and rules of the traditional painting. The Pollock painting has the freedom of expression in his paintings compared the Petrov painting which is rather traditional and obeying  the rules of society.  When you put both images together you see that both are forms of propaganda for different countries. The paintings are created in this way so that the difference between American propaganda (Pollock’s painting) and the Russian propaganda (Petrov) is visually obvious.

This then links in with Abstract Expressionism where  painters have to show the countries claim to cultural leadership. The artwork is also used as weapon of war, for example spy agencies used artists such as Pollock in the Cold War.

Cubism

Cubism is the fragmentation of forms and politics. The best example of cubism is Picasso’s painting of Guernica 1937. The painting was a political statement about Spain’s conditions after the Spanish Civil War. The painting travelled the world and engages with the outside world. Cubism paintings can also be seen as symbolic.

Line & Plane – Picasso, Two seated Women 138. What is special about this painting is that Picasso has used different lines and shapes to create an image that you have to take time to work out where the figures stand. It’s a game between the artist and the viewer.

Flatness & volume Picasso, La Femme Fleur, 1946. To be able to work out these paintings you have to forget everything you know about light and dark, and read light for dark instead. There is also the idea that the artist might not follow bodily forms, for example in the La Femme Fleur image by Picasso the grid pays no attention to the baby’s form.

Surrealism

Mason, Automatic Drawing 1924.

Automatism – Similar to automatic writing, you let your hands create a piece without realising and focusing on what you’re drawing.

Biden Imagery Masson, The Kill 1844. When one image has multiple meanings.

Desire– Masson, Pasiphae 1937. When an image has a deep, personal meaning and sometimes includes male sexual violence and authentic expression.

Fluxus art

Fluxus art was usually created by musicians, poets or any other individuals that didn’t agree with conventional art. It can be created in many different ways, it can sometimes be a short film of moving images with a distorted and annoying sound. The art eventually becomes boring and irritating and you start to notice the other things around you, therefore it is an interactive way of showing the relationship between artwork and life. In a sense Fluxus art can be metaphorical, showing how there’s no life beyond the TV screen only more television. Another example of Fluxus art was in performing, where a group would be given a script to perform certain actions. The purpose behind the actions is to prove how the art work itself is not important.

Minimalism

Minimalism was first developed in the USA as an extreme form of abstract art. The artwork was formed by simple geometric shapes such as squares and rectangles. They usually represent a feeling, expression or an aspect of the real world. When you look at a piece of minimalist work, you are drawn to whats in front of you can’t see any connection to the outside world within them.

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Conceptualism

Conceptual art focuses more on the idea behind creating the work, than the final outcome. This type of art can look or be anything, Conceptual artists focus more on what type of materials will be most effective to communicate their ideas. Some conceptualist’s take to performing or poetry.

Essay Questions

For my constellation essay I have decided to take the first question, “How did the notion of what painting is change during the sixties?”and modify it to my own course. Instead of discussing how painting changed I am going to discuss how Graphic Design and typography changed in that era. I have decided to do some research into what type of things I could discuss within the text. I am also going to use my notes from the ‘Purple Haze –  Channelling Art Nouveau within 60’s Psychedelia’ Keynote session.

My question : How did the notion of what Graphic Design and Typography is change during the sixties?

 

 

 

 

 

Keynotes

Purple Haze – Channelling Art Nouveau within 60’s Psychedelia

Today’s keynote was a discussion on Art Nouveau and how fragments and traces of the past appear in the present. Generally the past is woven into the fabric of a new story and we play around with this idea in our work, sometimes the fragments have been modified so that they’re not the same as they were in the past.

We started to look at different examples of nouveau, the first was The Beatles album cover, Revolver. The cover was an illustration of the band created in a photo montage style, heavily influenced by the 60’s psychedelia. Another Example was Jimmy Hendrix and his unique and unusual fashion sense. Hendrix used to experiment with different patterns and  prints, a celebration of nouveau style.

What is Art Nouveau?

“Revolution in the head” MacDonald 1994.

A design movement that included all art subjects and the creation of interior, architecture, posters, clothing, items and unique artworks. The work has no geometric patterns or no sharp corners, but continuous natural swirls and patterns inspired by nature. Women are usually linked to the work, blurred into natural settings, along with animals and plants created in an abstract style. So as MacDonald said ‘Revolution in the head” he was implying that the movement was created by the art word, rebelling against tradition, evoking freedom and individuality.

William Morris

Another example of Art Nouveau was found in the works of William Morris who experimented with abstract prints of nature and plant forms. The English textile designer created wallpaper and prints using abstract patterns inspired by nature. Following The art nouveau 60’s psychedelia his work started to become popular prints for clothing. There is an example of this also on the Pink Floyd album poster from the 60’s.

Sex, Sexuality & Potions

One of the main themes behind the art nouveau was the use of drugs and erotica in the artwork. what was once considered to be condemned in society was now being exploited and experimented with. Different artists were bringing these elements into their works, for example Lewis Carol’s Alice in Wonderland, the idea of an innocent female going into the world of decadence. Using the different characters, colours and wacky illustrations giving the sense of drug use!

Aubrey Beardsley

Beardsley was an important illustrator in the decade, his work was drug filled, sexually charged and full of decadence! His unique style of working inspired the fashion and music industry. His work definitely broke the rules of tradition and the art movement were really empowered and inspired by his work. Rock bands started to create posters using his style illustrating and from this strange things started happening to typography.

How does this relate to my work?

Todays keynote has really inspired me to ‘break the rules’ within the way I create and design. I learnt that sometimes it’s okay to step out of my comfort zone and experiment with different colours, shapes and in my case different letters/typefaces. Learning  about how people like Jimmy Hendrix stood up for what they loved and broke the tradition of their time, really inspired me to try and experiment more in my work and share my ideas whenever I get an opportunity. I definitely would like to experiment with Art Nouveau in my future works, and possibly combine the idea with something slightly more modern to create a unique piece of work!

‘No Sex please, I’m Sherlock’ – Applying Academic Theory and Writing to your ideas

Dr Ashley Morgan looked into the TV show Sherlock on the BBC, and showed a clip of Dr Watson attempting to be friend Sherlock through asking if he has a girlfriend or boyfriend. However Sherlock is confused as he doesn’t know how to socialize. Naturally he thinks that Dr Watson is asking him on a date even though he makes it clear he is only interested in his work proving Sherlock is an asceticist.

In the past asceticism was seen as mainly religious, when people would become nuns, Monks and give up sex all together. However more contemporary asceticism revolves more around the body, like giving up chocolate for example.

Sex is usually seen as a symbol of masculinity and often portrayed in a fixed manner when shown on the TV. We understand them as both masculine and heterosexual. Heterosexual males are usually seen as married, employed, possibly violent and well dressed in suits and ties. On TV there are examples of these types of men, such as Lewis, Luther and Alec Hardy. Going back to the clip about Sherlock, it proves that he does not fit these profiles. At first it is questionable whether Sherlock is asexual (No sexual desires or feelings), however it becomes clear he is a acseticist as he has a sexual nature through out the show.

We never question Sherlock’s masculinity even through his profile doesn’t fit in with he heterosexual male stereotype. He demonstrates this through his homosocial relationship ( a relationship that falls before sex) with Dr Watson. Sherlock is a hyper-intellect, narcissist, who takes drugs (but is not addicted) and he has a mastery over drugs and his clothing.

So what does this all mean and how does it affect me?

The case study has allowed itself to grow and develop into an argument, exploring the connections to sex and masculinity that comes from watching an episode of Sherlock. From this discussion I feel as if i need to do further academic research to be able to make my work more factual and interesting. I have also learnt that it is important to make different connections between academic readings and my own writing so that I am able to develop my skills and ideas.

 

 

 

Teenage Kicks – Dr Martens Analysis.

Different approaches to material and visual Culture and an insight too the ‘Cultural Markers’ that come with the boots!

Today Dr Martens are known as general fashion wear, but to the other generation this wasn’t always the case. The shoes were originally created as work-wear, made by the German company known for ‘AirWair’ soles. At first the ‘Anti fashionable’ shoes main target audience was public service workers, but over time the brand adapted to the different fashions the 60’s, Punks, Goths, Grunge and Brit pop had to offer.

The shoes showed personality, and  changed their target audience to expressing individuality, social performance and self- fashioning. After time the boots started gaining a different reputation, they were seen as threatening with rebellious connections. Wearing the boots started to represent a political statement, even the women were trying to break the feminist views by wearing the boots.

” Putting on my first pair and instantly feeling like a badass”, Dr Martens 2012

How does this relate to my course?

“objects need to be unique, they need to be symbolic framing, storylines and human spokespersons in order to acquire social lines ” – Pels et al, 2001, citied in Woodward 2007, p153.

Whilst creating my work, I need to think who my target audience is and how I can adapt my work to different generations and personalities. I also need to remember about gender identities, class, sexual identities, social and historical context and social and cultural context.

 

New Materialism

The meaning of the body -How the social and cultural body is understood and used within my practice.

Task – Write a statement about which models of body you think are understood and used within your practice. Include images if you want.

The social body is understood though the experiences from day-to-day, for example being with your family and friends, going to school, learning about different cultures and rules, therefore the body naturally changes and adapts to society. This is used within my practice everyday when I’m learning new techniques, researching different designers and working with other students. People usually change by their surroundings and from different coincidences for example, because I am a Welsh speaker and have attended a Welsh Primary and Secondary School and learnt about a different culture to other students who have had their education through English. The social body is also used In my practice through the way I create, sketch and think, whilst some students have done foundation degrees and studied Graphic Design before attending university I have come from doing Art and Design as an A level, therefore my way of working and thinking might be different to others.

The cultural body is understood though different “artifacts, practises and institutions, rituals and modes of interaction”. Another way of understanding the cultural body is to look at the work of the famous artist Picasso, whose work changed when World War I began.

Picasso earlier works :


Picasso later works :


Picasso was highly influenced by the war in a way he would create in a more neoclassical style. He was also influenced by the artist Cezanne who wrote to Picasso and told him to look at nature in terms of cones, spheres and cylinders.

Through he course I am influenced by different designers, students and industries and as I learn more about the course and others who are working with me, the way I create and sketch will eventually change and mature over time. Not only will my practice work change but I will also change mentally becoming more independent to experiment with my own form of work and styles.

 

The difference between touch and sight

Task – Post your 2 drawn images, describe how they are different, and how the differences show how you perceive the object through touch and through sight.

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The first picture shows how you perceive the object through touch and the second is through sight. The first drawing is an outline of the object I was holding and there isn’t any detail to the drawing. However the sketch that I created when I could see  the object is much more detailed and you can see the different tones, colours and ridges. Another difference between both pictures is how one is larger than the other. When you are drawing something from feeling you try to get the picture as accurate as you can, but as soon as you can the see the object you are much more confident to create and sketch it so naturally you draw it on a bigger scale. When you try to create the object through touch your mind takes over and starts to create images of what the object looks like, therefore you don’t create what you’re feeling but you create what your mind tells you to do.

In my opinion its like learning to drive a car, at first you are nervous and unsure what to press or move, using your mind to workout how everything is supposed to be used, like you have seen from watching tv or other people driving. Once you have learned the basics and driving becomes more natural to you, you are then more confident and independent to drive by yourself. This is similar to the feeling and seeing because at first you’re unsure what you’re feeling but when you see it you are reassured and more confidant on what you are supposed to be creating.

How the world is as I expect it?

Task – Take your descriptions that you wrote last week and re-write them with this new theoretical support for your observations.

The reality of pictures is that they’re always entirely different objects to the eye, the marks on paper a seen as themselves and as some other thing  according to Gregory, R. 2009. Seeing Through Illusions. New York: Oxford University Press. In relation to the drawings from last week as the outline of the first picture suggests a plain object, you’re drawn to create an image from our experience and knowledge. However the second picture is a much more detailed image, with the different and harder pen strokes suggesting a different or darker colour and the way the lines are created suggest a different texture.

In relation to how different people see the images differently depending on their experiences and prior knowledge, the brain takes to store images you’ve already seen and then you see the present image as objects of the past. whilst I was drawing the object from feeling y mind was distracted by an object I had seen before, I was imagining a wine bottle cap and my brain was as if it was directing me to draw that particular image. Similar to Joseph Jastrow’s Neurological model of perception, where he said the brain is seen as “a photographic camera,with its eyelid cap, its iris shutter, and its sensitive plate… the picture mysteriously transferred to the minds representative, the brain”, Joseph Jastrow, The Mind’s Eye 1901.

Scott McCloud, Understanding Comics

How we perceive images!

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How materials and tools hide from view

Having discussed how materials, just as much as our bodies, have energies, properties and resistances that shape how we act and move in the world, I now realise that each material or tool that we use in our practice is an extension of ‘the working hand’. The tools grow to be a part of the body, for example when you hold a pen or pencil with two fingers and move the tip of the object around a surface you can feel what that surface is, being paper, your clothing or a wooden table. The philosopher Michel Serres explains,

“The hand is no longer a hand when it has taken hold of the hammer, it is the hammer itself, it is no longer a hammer, it flies transparent..”

I question how we manipulate the object to shape our movement,  way of thinking and our creative practice. The tools are moulded by the hand in practice, for example if you were playing an instrument it becomes a part of you, the way you play the instrument or hear it is an inseparable part to the act. Most importantly I have learnt that the boundary between the hand and tool vanishes whilst you are using it, an extract from Pallasmaa’s ‘The Working Hand’ explains that, a painter paints by the means of the mind rather than the brush as a physical object.

I have  significantly developed my knowledge and understanding of how the object becomes a part of our body, shaping our creative practice. I understand that drawn lines aren’t only recognised by my memories and experiences, like I explained in my last text, but they also express the memory and expectancy of the materials in use.

This knowledge could be essential to me as a learner as I am developing my practice and creative skills. It will widen my abilities and shape my practice so that I naturally experiment with different ways I could create and also shape the way I write. Because of this it will naturally push me to express a more personal opinion in my writing and widen my skills and abilities whilst doing my creative practices.

However I am not yet confident about how to connect the working hand within my practices, I will now need to gain a better understanding of the language of materials to be able to fully realise how our experiences are expressed and relate to our practices. As a next step, I need to research the works of different artist, for example Paul Klee who said that “Art does not render the visible; but renders visible“, who specialise in how experiences unconsciously shapes our movements, gestures and practices.

Developing research for end of term essay

CITING / REFERENCING

  • I’m learning about how we can modify the body, using the cultural body and perception of hypothesis as my inspiration. How do objects shape the body over time? What influences individuals to modify their bodies?
  • I’m doing this because I want to find out how the body is shaped over time by different elements. Using this I will discuss how the brain stores image we have seen and how different objects shape our physical body, for example foot binding.
  • I will do this in order to understand how different practises shapes the human body over time, and possibly how this has an effect on my personal work.

‘How we are changed by looking at the moon’ – week 1 lecture.

*1610 Galileo built the telescope that is now an important piece of technology for visual and material culture. It also changed the way material is understood.
*With this we can now see things that the naked eye couldn’t perceive and giving us a better idea of our relationship to the universe.
*When looking at the body, technology and the universe it is very clear that they’re all related and changes the way we think and the things we do.
*From the text by Mark Johnson, The meaning of the body’ – he states that we objectify the body and that this makes us an object among other objects.

“Once we learn to give up our reductive, hypothesising concepts of the body, we get a very much richer and more complex picture of how we are once always embodied and yet also always more than a thing” .

‘How fire shapes the pelvis’ – week 6 lecture.

*Anthropocentric history is history from the point of human beings, social, political and intellectual development.
*From history we are also taught that materials, things and objects and the environment can also partially shape what we do. To take sunglasses for example, over time humans have become dependant on the glasses so that their eyes aren’t strained in the sun, however I question does this possibly make the eyes weaker?
*Whilst researching the different history of body modification it becomes clear that the body has endless possibilities. In the book ‘The deep history of the human body by Shrylock and Smail …

“Just as human bodies adapt to unanticipated environmental changes, they also adapt to the unintended consequences of cultural, economic, or social transformations” Shyrock & Smail, 2011, p. 73.

How can you modify the body and why do we do it?

Section 1: 300 words
[WHAT] Identity a phenomenon;

“Once we learn to give up our reductive, hypothesising concepts of the body, we get a very much richer and more complex picture of how we are once always embodied and yet also always more than a thing” Mark Johnson, The meaning of the body’, 2008, University of Chicago Press.
Before being able to understand why we modify our bodies we need to understand our relationship with the universe, technology and materials and how everything changes how we perceive different things. In the quote by Mark Johnson, The Meaning of the body, above he shows how we see the body as an object among other objects, however we are much more than that. We are able to change the way we think and see things in different ways to others and explore the human bodies abilities and our power to modify it.

Today we have become over dependant on a variety of elements and materials, and we continue to use these in our lives to it easier. For example, most humans have become very dependant on general glasses and sunglasses, without realising how this object has shaped our body. We use glasses to help us see things better and we use sunglasses as a way to shield our eyes from the sun, however we don’t realise that in the long-term the glasses could be potentially be making our eyes weaker the more we use them. General glasses have also shaped the way we think, they have become a fashion statement that creates a sort of stereotype about different people.

However it is also important to consider how culture has had an effect on the way we modify our bodies, and example of how different beliefs can change the way we look. The more materials we discover and design, potentially the ones that were unintended, will all create new demands of modifying the body over time.

Section 2: 300 words
[HOW] Identify a theory to support the phenomenon;

“The deliberate kind of sculpting takes two forms, the vivid of which consists of the cutting, burning, filling, shredding and scraping of various parts of the body” Shyrock & Smail, 2011, Deep History : The Architecture of Past and Present. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Over time it is hard to understand what drives different individuals to change and modify their bodies. Some people take to the most known forms of body modification for example dieting, Botox injections, hair replacements or body building, this is a way for the individual to feel better about themselves or to be seen as more ‘Beautiful’ or ‘perfect’. However body modification is always dated back to a particular culture or country, and usually it is a traditional apart of their culture that drives these people to change themselves. Take the “giraffe” tribe from Myanmar, Burma for example “Starting at an early age, women of the Padaung tribe wear a coil of brass rings around their necks. This collar, and the elongated appearance it gives their necks over time, are Padaung symbols they wear proudly.” National Geographic, 2013, YouTube, 01/12/2016 16:17.

Another example body modification that isn’t related to just one culture but many, is the use of corsets. The corset was mostly used in the Victorian era to shape womans bodies in a particular way. “The object of the corset was, as British sexologist Havelock Ellis observed, to ‘furnish woman with a method of heightening at once her two chief secondary sexual characteristics, the bosom above and the hips and buttocks below. “H.H. Ellis, Studies in The Psychology of Sex: Sexual Selection in Man, F.A. Davis and Co., Philadelphia, 1918, p. 172. In relation to the idea that different materials shape the body over time the use of a corset shows that it also changes the body in a physical way “Despite the cruel reality of fierce red lines and deep furrows carved into women’s bodies by ‘strings and bones that lashed them in’, the contemporary corset discourse continues to reflect the ‘public’ face of corsetry drawn from quaint advertisements and pornography. ” Leigh Summers, 2001, Bound to Please: A History of the Victorian Corset, United Kingdom by Biddles Ltd, Guildford and King’s Lynn, P.209. Therefore culture plays a very important role in body modification and shows how individuals use different materials to shape the way we look and change the way we think.

Section 3: 300 words
[WHY] Reflect upon the phenomenon once more;

So why do we modify our body? Is it for aesthetic enhancements? Spiritual enlightenment? or culture?

Personally I believe that culture plays a large role in why people modify their body. Religion is a very part of many people’s lives around the world and people choose to express this in many different ways, therefore they change the way they look to prove that they are faithful to that particular religion.

The majority of body modifications have historical backgrounds, however this isn’t always the reason people are driven to do it. Expressing individuality is a very important factor to many individuals, and through body modification they can show their personality using tattoos, piercings, hair transplants or body building etc. You could also say that individuals modify their body to enhance attractiveness or sexuality. Today I personally feel that there is a lot of pressure on people to be perfect, especially with the growth in social media.

After learning how we can modify the body and how different elements and objects can potentially change the way we think an create, I then started to think of how my course in Graphic communication has changed the way I think. After only two months of studying I have already changed in the way I am dependant on my laptop for different,softwares, reasearch and projects, and how I am now thinking in a different way to before. The understanding of body modification may be useful to me whilst doing my course as I would like to think that I express my individuality more through my work using different elements that I have come across before coming to university that other people on my course may not know.

Conclusion (up to 100 words)

This section discusses what you have found out, what has changed about how you think, what new insights have emerged. Here you can also demonstrate how you will apply it to future works- what you will be doing next, remember synthesis is why research is conducted.

In conclusion I have discovered that body modification happens to every one of us, sometimes it happened without us even realising. Whenever we pick up an object, hear a story or piece of information, die our hair or wear a corset we are modifying our body in some way. It has made me realise how important culture, technology, industry and the environment has on our lives and how much it shapes us to be unique individuals. It makes me question how different the world would be without body modification, would certain cultures even be possible? How would different individuals express themselves? and would the idea of a ‘perfect’ person even exist? This is a demonstration I will definitely be applying to my future works, exploring with the many ways I could change the way I think to create or experiment with how different objects and technology could potentially change my work.